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Temporomandibular disorders

Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are due to problems with the jaw, jaw joint and facial muscles that control chewing around and jaw movements.
What is the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)?
TMD Sometimes incorrectly called them ATM, which stands for temporomandibular joint.
ATM is the hinge joint connecting the mandible (lower jaw) to the temporal bone of the skull bone (located on the side, middle and bottom of the skull just ahead of the ear on each side of the head). The ATM is flexible, as all joints, allowing movement of the jaw up and down and from side to side, and also allows you to talk, chew and yawn. Muscles attached to the TTM and surrounding the joint are controlling the position and movement of the jaw.
What are the symptoms of temporomandibular disorders?
People with TMD can experience temporary discomfort or pain and, in the worst case, that last many years. The disease is more common in women than in men and aged between 20 and 40 years.
Common symptoms of TMD include:
• Pain or tenderness in the face, jaw, neck or around the ear when you chew, speak or open your mouth.
• Limitations on opening the mouth.
• Jam or locking of the jaw in the open or closed position.
• Clicks, sometimes accompanied by pain, to chew or open and close the mouth.
• Tiredness in the face.
• Difficulty chewing or discomfort when biting sudden, as if the teeth do not fit quite right.
• Swelling in one or both sides of the face.
• Toothache, head and neck.
• Dizziness.
• Ear pain, hearing problems and ringing in the ears.
What Causes TMD?
Although the cause of TMD is not yet clear, dentists believe their symptoms are the result of problems with the jaw muscles or parts of the temporomandibular joint itself. These problems can be jaw injuries in the TMJ or muscles of the head and neck (eg, by a blow or whiplash). Other possible causes are:
• Grinding or clenching of teeth, which causes a lot of pressure on the temporomandibular joint.
• Osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis in the TMJ.
• Stress can lead to the person tense facial and jaw muscles or to tighten the teeth.
Diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders
The diagnosis is based on the study of the patient’s clinical history and physical examination by the dentist in order to properly determine the cause of the symptoms and not confused with other problems such as toothache or gum disease .

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